Russia is known to have a very robust education system. The government of Russia takes care of the education system along with that it keeps an eye on management of the educational institutions across the country. The education in Russia is provided primarily by the state and is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science. According to the latest survey, Russia has spent around 3.8% of GDP in 2013. Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws.
According to a survey done by the Central Intelligence Agency in the year 2015, the literacy rate in Russia is 99.7% (99.7% men, 99.6% women). The structure of the education system of Russia is explained below:
1. Pre-school Education: Kindergartens and pre-schools are regulated by regional and local authorities. The Ministry of Education and Science regulates only a brief pre-school preparation programme for the 5–6-year-old children.
2. Secondary School
a. General Framework: An eleven-year secondary education in Russia is compulsory since September 1, 2007. Whereas, until the year 2007, it was limited to nine years with grades 10-11 optional. A student of 15 to 18 years of age may drop out of school with approval of his/her parent and local authorities.
b. Vocational Training Program: After a student completes a nine-year programme, he/she is given a choice of either completing the remaining two years at normal school or of a transfer to a specialized professional training school. They provide students with a vocational skill qualification and a high school certificate equivalent to 11-year education in a normal school; the programme, due to its work training component, extends over 3 years.
3. Education for the disabled: Russia provides special services for the disabled students.
a. Physical Disability: Children with physical disabilities, depending on the nature, extent of disability and availability of local specialised institutions, attend either such institutions or special classes within regular schools.
b. Mental Disability: Children with late development who may return to normal schools and study along with normal children are trained at compensatory classes within regular schools.
4. University Level Education: According to a report from UNESCO, more than half of the Russian adult population has gained a tertiary education, which is twice as high as the OECD average. During the 2007–2008 academic year, Russia had 8.1 million students enrolled in all forms of tertiary education (including military and police institutions and postgraduate studies). Foreign students accounted for 5.2% of enrolment, half of whom were from other CIS countries.
5. Post-Graduate Education: There are two successive postgraduate degrees available in Russia: Candidate of science and Doctor of science. Both are a certificate of scientific, rather than academic, achievement, and must be backed up by original/novel scientific work, evidenced by publications in peer-reviewed journals and a dissertation defended in front of senior academic board.
Russia is known to have one of the best education systems in the world. Many students from across the globe apply in different universities of Russia to pursue their higher education.